Three orders of the structure of the subject
The Real
 
self = Ø
identity = Ø
absence, loss, lack = Ø
Other = Ø
 
(1a) No self/exterier boundaries.
(1b) No identity center.
(1c) No absence, loss, lack. Body begins to fragment into erogenous zones (mouth, anus, penis, vagina + mother's breast, voice, gaze).
 
(2) Matriarchal state of 'nature'.
 
(3) Always "in its place".
The Imaginary Order
 
self = Other
self = identification with ideal I
ideal-I = ideal ego = own image = Other
 
(1a) Construction of self as subject.
(1b) Illusion of coherent self identity.
(1c) Finding the self reflected back by an other with whom it identifies ~
Construction of self upon the image of Other (ideal I) ~
Identification with Other ~
Self is Other.
 
(2) Patriarchal order of culture.
 
(3) Discourse of everyday life.
Unconscious decenteres the subject.
Subject misrecognises (méconnait) the nature of the symbolic => illusion.
 
méconnaissance = seeing ideal-I where there is a fragmented body.
The Symbolic Order
 
symbolic order = { signs, symbols, significations, representations, images }
 
(1a) Self speaks.
(1b) Individuality surrendered to constraints of language conventions.
(1c) Self becomes more fluid+ambigious sfr rather than fixed entity sfd.
 
(3) The symbolic = substitute for what is missing from its place.
 
Self is reduced into empty sfr ("I") within the field of Other (Other = lang & culture).
taken from http://web.uvic.ca/~saross/lacan.html and all over

 
 
The graphs of desire

S-S' = signifying chain
 
Elementary cell.
Sfr = "that which represents the subject for another sfr.. and for this sfr, all other sfrs represent subject."
Sfr uses 'anchoring point' to stop otherwise endless movement of signification.
 
On Graph 1, one may read the inversion that constitutes the subject in his intersection of the signifying chain. This inversion takes place by anticipation, whose law imposes at the first intersection (on vector -->S-S') the last word (that is to say, punctuation) and retroaction, enumerated in the formula of intersubjective communication, which necessitates a second intersection, in which is situated the receiver and his battery.
s(A) = sfr of Other
A = Other
S = speaking subject
 
s(A) - the punctuation in which the signification is constituted as finished product. a moment (a rhythm rather than a duration).
A - the locus of the sfr's treasure. a place rather than a space.
 
Graph 2 composes, on the basis of the elementary cell the imaginary identification and the symbolic identification in the subjective synchrony; the signifying chain is here given its specification as speech. It becomes the vector of the drive, between desire and phantasy, in the complete graph - the intermediary graph simply punctuating the question of the subject to the Other: 'What does he want of me?' to be inverted in its return, 'What do you want of me?'
( S <>a) = sigla = perverse fantasy = "inverse" neurosis = matheme of desire
 
( S <>a) breaks the phonematic element constituted by the signifying unity right down to its literal atom.
S(Ø) = desire of Other = sfr of lack in Other
 
S(Ø) inherent in its very function as treasure of sfr.
taken from http://www.lacan.com/frameXVII2.htm

 
 
Theories modularized
owner: Lacan
storage: early 60s
parents: Jakobson / metaphor & metonymy, Freud: condensation & displacement
axioms:
metaphor = "replacement of one word by another"
metonymy = "word-to-word connexion" (contiguity)
"presence" of unconscious in language
name: metaphor & metonymy
owner: Jakobson
 
name: condensation & displacement
owner: Freud
storage: Interpretations of the Dreams
owner: Lacan
parent: Freud / Psychopathology..
summary: "the unconscious is structured like a language"
owner: Freud
storage: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
submodules: slips of the tongue, absent-mindedness, the forgetting of names, misreadings
owner: Lacan
storage: early 60s
parent: de Saussure / sfr+sfd, de Saussure / language = system of differences
axioms: subject = subject of signifier

 
 
Notes. To be organized later.
zero form of sexuality for animals = copulation,
zero form of sexuality for humans = masturbation.
"that's what love is. it's one's own ego that one loves in love, one's own ego made real on the imaginary level."
 
sexual diff is not symbolizable, cannot be represented.
"la femme n'existe pas" (woman doesnt exist).
"la femme n'est pas toute" (woman is not whole).
~ doesnt have a penis.
 
phallus = sfr of absence.
phallus = in place of evthing the subject loses tru his entrance into language + all power associated with "symbolic father" and "Name-of-the-Father (laws, control, knowledge).
phallus signifies child's recognition of mother's lack of penis.
 
jouissance ~ enjoyment + sexual bkg.
 
Freud - plus modules: Oedipal drama, pleasure principle, reality principle, tripartite model of the psyche, repression.
 
libidinal dynamism @ imaginary.
 
reality = the fantasy world we convince ourselves is the world around us.
the real = a materiality of existence beyond language and thus beyond expressibility (actual materiality of things).
 
50s imaginary order, symbolic order, dep psych on lang.
60s objet petit a, the real, fantasy
 
36 the Mirror Stage.
50s Hegelian vocabulary; rhetorical mode.
50s language speaks tru human beings as much as they speak it.
60s/early 70s infl by mathematics & formalization (Frege, Russell, Gödel, Cantor).

 
 
I. The Symbolic Order
A. The Supremacy of the Signifier
 
1. The exteriority, autonomy and displacement of the signifier, its defiles.
      a. Exteriority.
      b. The defiles.
2. The signifying unit.
      a. Symbol, letter, signifier.
      b. Articulation.
      c. Materiality and locus of the letter.
3. The structure: the symbolic, the imaginary, the real.
      () production of the real by the symbolic.
      () hallucination.
      () supremacy of the symbolic over the imaginary.
      () supremacy of the symbolic over the real.
      () intrusion of the imaginary in the real.
4. The supremacy of the signifier over the signified.
B. The Defiles of the Signifier
 
1. The genesis of the ego: imaginary identification (see: The function of the ego).
      a. Primordial symbolization and primary identification (the demand for love and the 'Fort-Da').
      b1. The mirror-stage.
      b2. Narcissism.
      b3. Aggressivity.
      c1. The superego.
      c2. The ideal ego.
2. The production of the subject symbolic identification (see: The structure of the subject).
      a. The ego-ideal, introjection and the function of the single stroke.
      b. The Name-of-the-Father (agency of the symbolic, or dead, Father) and primal repression.
      c. The Law (symbolic pact, debt).
      d. The Oedipus complex (secondary, normalizing identification).
C. The Signifying Chain
 
1. Repetition (repetition compulsion, the insistence of the chain).
2. Overdetermination and logical time (anticipation and retroaction, chance, encounter and destiny).
3. Remembering, recollection.
4. Death, the second death, the death drive, the real as impossible, the being of the existent.
II. The Ego, The Subject
A. The Body, The Ego, The Subject (The Organism, One's Own Body, The Fragmented Body) (see: The mirror-stage, The subject of the chain)
B. The Function of the Ego (see: The genesis of the ego, The theory of ideology)
 
1. The illusion of autonomy.
      a. Méconnaissance.
      b. The paranoiac structure of the ego (and of human knowledge).
      c. The formations of the ego (ideals of the ego) (see: The superego, The ideal ego, The ego ideal).
      d. Representation (see Desire and phantasy).
      e. Defence (see 'Frustration', Resistance).
      f. Love and hate (see Primal symbolization, Narcissism, The objet a).
2. Projection.
      a. Identification with the other, transitivism, projection, the dual relation.
      b. The animal (animal psychology).
      c1. Hegelian categories: the struggle to the death, recognition, prestige, the absolute Master.
      c2. Consciousness of self, infatuation, the belle ame, the law of the heart, the cunning of Reason, absolute knowledge.
3. 'Group psychology' (see: The ego-ideal, The single stroke).
4. The geometry of the ego (imaginary space). (see: The topology of the subject).
C. The Structure of the Subject
 
1. The true subject.
      a. The subject of the chain.
      b1. The subject of science (see: Psychoanalysis and science).
      b2. 'Wo es war, soll Ich werden'.
      b3. 'Cogito, (ergo) sum'.
      c. Affirmation, repression, (de)negation, foreclosure (see Bejahung, Verdrängung, Verneinung, Verwerfung).
2. The division, splitting and fading of the subject (see: Desire and phantasy).
3. The topology of the subject (symbolic space) (see: The locus of the letter, The geometry of the ego, The locus of the Other, Metaphor).
D. Intersubjective Communication
 
1. Critique of positivism.
      a. Language as sign.
      b. Metalanguage.
2. The function of the 'I' and the subject of the enunciation.
3. The Other.
      a. Formula of communication: 'Human language constitutes a communication in which the emitter receives from the receiver his own message in an inverted form'.
      b. The Other and the other (see: Projection).
      c. The locus of the Other (see: The supremacy of the symbolic).
      d. 'The unconscious is the discourse of the Other' (see: 'Man's desire is the desire of the Other').
III. ???
A. The Formations of the Unconscious (see: Communication).
 
1. The symptom (the censor and truth; repression and the return of the repressed) (see: The truth).
2. The rhetoric of the unconscious.
      a. The point of desire.
      b1. Metaphor (contrasted with analogy).
      b2. Metonymy.
B. The Analytic Experience
 
1. Technique.
2. a. Empty speech (the discourse of the imaginary) (see: Narcissism, The illusion of autonomy).
      b. Abjection of the theory of the ego in analysis (splitting of the ego and identification with the analyst) (see: The theory of ideology).
      c. 'Frustration'
      d. Resistance.
3. a. Neutrality and the analyst's response.
      b. The transference.
      c. Intransitive demand and suppression (see: The locus of the Other, Repetition, Need, demand, desire).
4. a. Punctuation, interpretation (see: Repetition).
      b. The purpose and end of analysis (full speech, the language of desire, the subjectification of death) (see: Death, Castration).
5. The training of analysts.
      a. The knowledge (savoir) of the analyst and the training analysis (see: Epistemology).
      b. Psychoanalytic associations (see The theory of ideology).
C. The Phallus
 
1. The drives.
2. L'objet a.
3. Jouissance, Castration.
4. Desire.
      a. 'Man's desire is the desire of the Other'.
      b. Desire and the Law; need, demand, desire; desire and phantasy.
IV. Clinical Practice
A. Freud's Cases.
 
1. Dora.
2. The Rat Man.
3. The Wolf Man.
4. Judge Schreber.
5. Little Hans.
6. The dream of the butcher's wife.
B. Psychiatric Practice.
 
1. Neurosis.
      a. Neurosis (hysteria, phobia).
      b. Obsessional neurosis.
2. Perversion (sado-masochism, scoptophilia, homosexuality).
3. Psychosis (see: Verwerfung).
      a. Psychosis.
      b. Paranoia (in Kraepelin's sense).
V. Epistemology and The Theory of Ideology
A. Epistemology.
 
1. The epistemological break (the example of physics).
2. Truth.
      a. Truth as fiction, as secret, as symptom.
      b. Psychoanalysis and science.
3. Conjecture.
      a. The conjectural ('human') sciences.
      b. Psychology as science; its object.
B. The Theory of Ideology.
 
1. The ideology of freedom: theory of the autonomous ego, humanism, rights of man, responsibility, anthropomorphism, ideals, instinctual maturation, etc.
2. The ideology of free enterprise: the American Way of Life, human relations, human engineering, success, happiness, pattern.
taken from Jacques-Alain Miller: Jacques Lacan - Écrits Selection

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